O setor de saneamento no Brasil tem demonstrado força e flexibilidade diante das dificuldades . Em janeiro de , o Presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva assinou uma nova lei federal de água e saneamento (Lei /07 para o. 25 set. Four decades later, the enactment of Federal Law of 05/01/, which .. LEONELLI, G. C. V. A construção da lei federal de parcelamento do solo urbano . Institui a Política Nacional de Saneamento e cria. Passados nove anos da Lei do Saneamento, que define as diretrizes to the National Plan for Basic Sanitation (PlanSab) based on Law No 11,/ —.
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In this sense, it seeks to represent these municipalities by typology in a table format for the initial interpretation by placing each municipality within the group that it belongs to. In terms of limitations, we can cite the lack of available data for all of the municipalities, the reliability of the collected data, the difficulty of integrating information from various databases, the manner of comparing municipalities based on profiles, and the aggregation of data which has the limitation of using a compensatory method, even though this was only used to a partial extent.
Lei n o In terms of the weighting, in FA the weighting intervenes to saneqmento the overlapping of information between two or more correlated indicators and does not measure the theoretical importance associated with the indicator Giovannini et al. In terms of the sample size, according to Hair and collaboratorsthere need to be more observations than variables, with the minimum acceptable ratio being 5: In terms of universalization, the SNIS is still not able to furnish information about sanitation in the rural and peripheral areas discussed in the study conducted by Schneider and collaborators The visualization of the classification results facilitates the interpretation of information in a clear and objective manner.
Handbook on constructing composite indicators: To summarize these characteristics, we applied factor analysis using R, which analyzes a group of variables to identify its latent dimensions. The sample consisted of observations the quantity of municipalities and 92 variables, equivalent to a ratio of 5: This study demonstrates the need for data to evaluate sanitation in a complete manner, considering the concept of adequate sanitation.
The FA summarizes the variables and saneamebto factor scores for the municipalities. This data demonstrates the need for improvements in basic sanitation. Increasing international initiatives employ composite indicators to measure the performance of cities, compare them and use them to influence national and international political discussions.
Saneamento no Brasil – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Sanitation indicators Within the international context, there is a growing utilization of performance indicators in the sanitation sector to monitor the providing of, regulation of, and planning of these services Sperling and Sperling, However, in terms of the indicators W Efficiency and D Efficiency, more differences emerge among these municipalities.
Even though the indicators make decision making possible, this study has not sought to evaluate the impact of the program or sanitation policy. Table 2 shows the quantities of the state municipalities and their respective typologies as well as those of the sample.
Thematic content analysis of the Sanitation Law confirmed four components: A study of sanitation of toilets in elementary and senior Secondary schools located in rural areas of Uttarakhand state in Pei.
August 19, ; Accepted: Even though FA is generally just for metric variables, Hair and collaborators consider it acceptable to include a small number of saneamneto variables among the metric variables analyzed by factors. The factor loads are the correlations of each variable with the factor, the lowest load being 0.
In total, the factors explain After these tests, we used an octagonal rotation using the Varimax method to interpret the solution. According to Hair and collaboratorsthe factor score represents the degree to which each municipality has a 1145 elevated score within the group of items that have elevated weights for a given factor; that is, higher values with elevated weights for a factor result in a larger factor score.
In Brazil there are roughly 3. The strong points of the elaborated sanitation indicators are: In this sense, different weights were not attributed sanemento to theoretical importance; equal weights were considered for all of the factors.
Only Profile I had a large reduction in representativeness. Introduction In Brazil there are roughly 3. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropologyv. To do this, it will be necessary to monitor the sanitation situation in municipalities to determine the dimensions of the effort and resources necessary.
In general, the MBSI values for municipalities are very close to each other. Step 3 is based on exploratory factor analysis FA to determine saneamengo structure of the relationships between the variables Corrar, Paulo and Dias Filho, The analysis of the variables used to elaborate the composite indicators for basic sanitation is based on the Handbook on constructing composite indicators Giovannini et al.
This is an estimate, because an attribute cannot always be measured by just one indicator. To aggregate the factor scores by geometric average, we had to normalize the factor scores to avoid negative values. By monitoring sanitation in the municipalities, public administration can plan specific actions, establish performance and quality metrics, and orient public policies.
Final considerations This study demonstrates sanamento need for data to evaluate sanitation in a complete manner, considering the concept of adequate sanitation. According to Kern apud Meijering, Kern and Tobi,one tool that sandamento often been used to influence national and international political discussions is the European green city rankings.
Saneamento Básico – Alchetron, The Free Social Encyclopedia
It may be noted that the municipalities not included in the analysis due to a lack of data did not significantly affect the representativeness of the sample, given that the proportions were maintained. R2 saneakento Urban population served by the household collection service inhabitants.
Furthermore, the study of Schwemlein, Cronk and Bartram points to the need to evaluate inter-relationships between indicators. The criteria for the extraction of the number of factors was the latent root, with only eigenvalues greater than 1 being considered significant, which resulted in three factors or latent dimensions: