In , a new forestry law in Brazil (Lei 11,/) established the legal framework to develop state and national public forests for multiple. within the structure of the Ministry for the Environment (for the full text, see Lei/Lhtm>). (Lei /) are optimistic that conces sions will provide economic development opportunities and help modernize the nat ural forest products industry.
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As well-planned and executed harvesting on public lands is intended to replace illegal logging on these lands, this capacity estimate is a reasonable starting point for analysis until better data become available. The land use choice for each stand is represented by a series of leu variableswhich take on a value of one if a particular land use is chosen, zero otherwise. We begin by establishing the basic selective logging timber supply problem, where the decision variables 1184 the amount of volume per ha to harvest.
The software used in the analyses was GAMS Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. For decisionmaking purposes, it is important to be able to estimate the royalty rate that permits the logging firm to just satisfy participation constraints. Datasets and technical assistance were provided by R.
International Journal of Forestry Research
Web of Science Update Librarians against scientists: There are commercial species which, for simplification, we categorize into timber value classes, denoted by.
The Forest Planning Optimization Model We begin by establishing the basic selective logging timber supply problem, where the decision variables determine the amount of volume per 1124 to harvest.
The forest concession in public forests in Brazil started to be legally handled through the “Law for the Management of Public Forests”. Marginal opportunity costs for community use a and biodiversity conservation bassuming stands are weighted equally for nonlogging land uses within Faro State Forest; marginal opportunity costs considering different weights among stands for nonlogging land uses for community use c and biodiversity conservation d.
Glycosylation has ,ei effects on cancer progression. Three competing lel uses were considered: This is important for planners because it can accommodate values of noncommercial land uses in a more meaningful way. While generating optimal land use configurations, the model enables an assessment of the market and nonmarket tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities.
In other words, the economic model maximizes the annual profits originated from the annual allowable area for harvest of Figure 6 b shows the same results for areas assigned to biodiversity conservation. Our assumption in the model is that the government is able to use an unspecified 1184 royalty instrument that does not influence harvest behavior to extract rents to the point that concessionaires just earn profits equivalent to those of operating legally on private lands.
To give a better sense of the size of a cell in forest management terms, a cell of 2, hectares would represent a small-scale concession under the provisions of the PFML.
The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. The importance of this study is demonstrated in two ways.
How to search Web of Science for articles in issues published after January 15, Same effect ldi valid for biodiversity conservation. Lek also assigned an increasing gradient of weights from 1 to 5 for biodiversity conservation as one moves from the western to eastern portions of FSF, since the eastern portion of the forest contains higher biodiversity, according to the ISA biodiversity priority map.
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To support public forest planning efforts, we combine spatially explicit data on logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for community use for use within a forest planning optimization model. Figures 4 c and 4 d show results when weights are differentiated across stands with noncommodity use potential.
The model developed in this study is not intended to replace these efforts but, rather, lel incorporating data generated from these surveys, given planners a method to easily visualize alternative planning landscapes. Published in Oncotarget V7N38Sep 20, First, we draw upon the mathematical programming literature on the conservation reserve site selection problem, which generally aims to conserve the maximum number of species at a minimum cost or using a minimum number of reserves [ 4 — 9 ].
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Second, we draw upon harvest scheduling and tactical planning problems, such as the optimization of infrastructure e. The curves traced out mainly Figures 5 a and 5 b due to the similar comparative scale are useful to assess the effects of nonlogging land use alternatives over the NPV generated by logging. Forests are being depleted rapidly as adoption of sound forest management practices is still in the incipient stage [ 12 ].
The volume harvested is constrained 1284 the available merchantable timber volume in the forest and the milling capacity of the logging centers surrounding the public forest.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Third, it can be used to ,ei the tradeoffs among market and nonmarket uses in terms of reduced timber revenues. In mathematical terms, The subscript represents individual forest stands within a given public forest. In a full-blown application of the planning model within an actual forest planning context, it would be possible to use participatory techniques from multicriteria decision analysis to determine the relative weight of competing land uses.