The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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This fact compels us to reconsider the principal line of sociological argumentation concerning the way modern states have developed.
By the summer, with war against Prussia and Austria heating up and the problem of emigration persisting, the Assembly on July adopted oof further “Decree on Passports” entirely suspending the issuance of such documents for departure from France, except to certain selected groups distinguished mainly by their need to travel abroad for commercial pur- poses. The mea- sure was provoked when the Assembly learned that “a great number of foreign mendicants” were taking advantage of the poor relief in Paris to the detriment of the indigenous indigent.
Greer’s estimate thus misleads because it focuses upon the freedom of the French to enter and leave their country rather than on the liberty to move within the Kingdom, which at this point remained very much a live issue – indeed, for most of the French, the primary one. Passports identity papers and the Nazi persecution of the Jews. Passport requirements, according to Lemalliaud, “may per- haps afflict the bad citizens, but the true friends of liberty would gladly support this minor inconvenience.
There is something splendid about defiance of government on such an impudent scale. According to Georges Lefebvre, “no one doubted that the King’s flight heralded invasion,” and the National Assembly thus added to its prohibition on departures a call-up of infantry battalions to be raised from among the National Guard.
Todd’s endorsement of the project as well as his steadfast support for me and my work have been a source of great satisfaction over the last decade and more; I feel honored to have his friendship and encouragement.
One of the most stirring and impassioned critics of the new passport law, Girardin besought his fellow deputies not to adopt such an “inquisitorial” law: I begin with the French Revolution because of its canonical status as the “birth of the nation-state.
Includes bibliographical references and index. The com- mittee’s jon began by noting that the law of 7 December had not yet been abrogated; that law, it will be recalled, required that the departements were to issue passports for departure, after hearing the johj of the district and municipal directories concerning the legiti- macy hte the request.
A Typology of Papers. The bill proposed penalties for those who refused properly to identify themselves to the state, for failure to do so “renders one culpable, manifests perverse intentions, trpey the law.
Aside from merely authorizing domicile in particular places, certifi- cates of residence were closely tied in to the provision of public welfare, particularly pensions. The invention of the passport.
At the top of the cards were to appear the words hospitalite et surete and, if the person were from a country with which France was at peace, the word “fraternite. Dividing the two sides of the debate was the question whether one could limit the freedom of the deputies by denying them passports, on the one hand, and whether deputies should leave their posts in the country’s hour of need, particularly given that the foot-soldiers of the nation would not be allowed to do so, on the other.
Yet at the same time, the rise of liberal and natural law ideas proclaiming individual freedom and the inviolability of the person cast into disfavor older habits of “writing on the body” such as branding, scarification, and tattooing, as well as dress codes as means for identifying persons except when these methods of marking are voluntarily assumed, of course.
It is thus useful to examine the debate in some detail. In this respect, recent developments in sociology turn our thinking in a fruitful direction when we try to make sense of how states actually embrace the societies they seek to rule, and to distin- guish their members from non-members. The committee then recommended as an “indispensable condition” that every passport include an extract of the person’s passpor declara- tion.
Full text of “The invention of the passport : surveillance, citizenship, and the state”
In the course of the debate, the Jacobin firebrand Jean-Francois Delacroix expanded upon this notion, suggesting that inventiob passport, far from entailing a presumption of guilt, was in fact a “certificate of pro- bity” insuring the security of those traveling in France. In adopting these measures, the Assembly had taken a new departure as well. The narrative addresses the legal history of passport controls in these countries until shortly after passporr Second World War.
The landless poor would then have work and sustenance, and hence no reason for taking to the roads as they normally did in times of need.
John Torpey. The Invention of the Passport; Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
Previous sociological discussion of the development of pf states has focused attention primarily on their nivention capacity to “penetrate” or “reach into” societies and extract from them what they need in order to survive. If the law were not explicidy limited in time, he feared, “you run the risk of not being able to revoke it.
The proposed Article 6 would have allowed all French passport bear- ers to move about unhindered only within the district in which they resided. In one of his few sustained treatments of formal institutional environ- ments, the irreplaceable essay on “total institutions” in Asylums, 21 Goffman shows that the effort to impose control in such environments begins with systematic attempts to annihilate the “identities” – the selves – of their inmates.
The fight of the King and the Revolutionary renewal of inventiob control. ISBN 0 8 pbk.
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This change had been urged by Delacroix, who insisted that this power be removed from the hands of the ministers who, in his view, were issuing the passports with which the emigres were slipping off to Coblenz to join the enemies of the revolution. It examines how the concept of citizenship ijvention been used to delineate rights and penalties regarding property, liberty, taxes and wel- fare.
The foreigner, increasingly defined exclusively in national rather than local terms, was perceived more and more ipso facto as a suspect. Those opposed to the resurrection of passport controls took a sharply different view of the probable consequences of their restoration.
Against this background, let us briefly examine the imposition of passport controls in early modern European states, as rulers increasingly sought to establish untrammeled claims over territories and people. Yet now the objec- tion was raised that requiring descriptions in a passport would result in the arbitrary infringement of travelers’ freedom because the various agents of the state involved in enforcing these controls were “inade- quately informed” and might “not be able to distinguish exactly among descriptions.
Richard Cobb has offered a pungent description of the situation facing the government: Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.