The electroretinogram (ERG) is a diagnostic test that measures the . The multifocal ERG (mfERG) simultaneously measures local retinal. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) is an objective, noninvasive examination for the assessment of visual function. It enables the stimulation. Abstract. AIMS To describe the topography of multifocal electroretinograms ( ERGs) and to explore its diagnostic value in patients with Stargardt’s macular.

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The c-wave generally peaks within 2 to 10 seconds following a light stimulus, depending on flash intensity and duration. An internet connection is also preferable to share data and for manufacturer of your system to update software or help solve problems.

The hyperpolarization of the photoreceptor cells results in a decrease in the amount of neurotransmitter released, which subsequently leads to a depolarization of the post-synaptic bipolar cells.

For ease of pattern recognition, the software then generates a3-D waveform of the response density reflecting a much higher response in the normal foveal center.

However, there are many patients in whom the disease presents atypically with an absence of visible flecks and relatively spared central vision. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In practical terms, a patient might be legally blind as a result of macular degeneration or other scotomas and still appear normal, according to traditional full field ERG. In Erich Sutter developed a new method, combining the advantages of the focal and pattern stimulation into one procedure called multifocal ERG.

Enucleation of the eye.

This electrical response is derived from both cone and bipolar cells, with smaller contribution from retinal neurons. The multifocal Electroretinogram The subject fixates on the center of a display containing an array of hexagons that increase in size from the center outward. The perifoveal responses are diminished significantly. The computer cross-correlates the fluctuations in voltage with each change in the m-sequence. James Dewar of Scotland subsequently performed it in humans inhowever widespread clinical application did not occur untilwhen American psychologist Lorin Riggs introduced the contact-lens electrode.


Focal ERG is useful for assessing macular function in conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, however requires good fixation electroretinograma the subject.

Multifocal ERG in Practice

The signals are amplified and stored eleectrorretinograma a computer for further analysis. Multifocal ERGs therefore help us better identify patients who are more likely to develop retinal toxicity.

The clinical example year-old patient with soft drusen, visual acuity: The mfERG of patients with retinopathy can be altered in many ways including generalized depression of the mfERG, loss of the central peak waveform, as well as a pericentral loss. If using a monopolar recording electrode choose a location electrorretinoggama head for the negative pole such as forehead, mastoid or earlobe.

Multifocal Electroretinograms

Back up your data at the end of each recording session in addition to saving in system’s computer memory. Page Discussion View form View source History. Most manufacturers provide specialty protocols or a number of analysis and recording approaches and there are many potential benefits to taking a flexible approach to protocol selection.

Early visual field defects due to glaucoma may also be detected sooner using mfERG compared to automated perimetry. If a dim flash ERG is performed on a dark-adapted eye, the response is primarily from the rod system.

The Multifocal Electroretinogram | Vision Science and Advanced Retinal Imaging Laboratory

In our lab, we record the ERG with an electrode embedded within a contact lens. The central hexagons are smaller than those in the periphery. It is important to remember that the mfERG procedure records a large multi-dimensional data set and to resist the temptation to rely purely on the b-wave approximation.


Multifocal ERG has a consistent topographic distribution in the normal population.

In addition, the waveforms rarely multifofal to normal even when the patient notes “normal” vision. The electroretinogram ERG is a recording of the bioelectric potential, the summed activity of the retinal cells located at the back of the eye, when stimulated by light. For the fraction of the unit of energy erg, see micro-erg. Differing field sizes varying from 3 degrees to 18 degrees and light stimulus frequencies have been used in the various methods, however each technique deals with the challenge of limiting multifical of light scattered outside the focal test area.

Most cases can be distinguished on the basis of a clinical exam with a normal appearing fovea, electrorretinotrama in the mid-periphery, and poor central vision.

By contrast, Stargardt’s disease and cone dystrophies show conspicuous reduction in mfERGs in the central macular, where cones dominate. Electroretinography mhltifocal the electrical responses of various cell types in the retinaincluding the photoreceptors rods and conesinner retinal cells bipolar and amacrine cellsand the ganglion cells.

Once eyes dilate to about 7 mm testing can begin. This precision helps correlate electrophysiologic findings with visual field testing. Selective reduction in b-wave amplitude more prominent in scotopic than photopic responses; delayed photopic and scotopic b-wave implicit times.

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