Abstract. The historical roots of dementia praecox and schizophrenia are described in the context of . dementia praecox paranoides and paraphrenia, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: October – Volume 54 – Issue 4 – ppg BOOK REVIEW: PDF Only. Source. DEMENTIA PRAECOX AND. Get this from a library! Dementia praecox and paraphrenia. [Emil Kraepelin; George M Robertson; R Mary Barclay].
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This made the psychiatric literature of the time confusing since, in a strict sense, Kraepelin’s disease was not Bleuler’s disease. The diagnostic criteria were vague, minimal and wide, including either concepts that no longer exist or that are now labeled as personality disorders for example, schizotypal personality disorder.
In this way, we were able to see what kind of mistakes had been made and were able to follow-up the reasons for the wrong original diagnosis. In the first instance the reference is made in relation to young girls of asthenic build who have often also suffered from typhoid. As a direct result of the effort to construct Research Diagnostic Criteria RDC in the s that were independent of any clinical diagnostic manual, Kraepelin’s idea that categories of mental disorder should reflect discrete and specific disease entities with a biological basis began to return to prominence.
Psychiatric nosology in the nineteenth-century was chaotic and characterised by a conflicting mosaic of contradictory systems. This condition could be innate or acquired, and the concept had no reference to a necessarily irreversible condition. Instead the French maintained an independent classification system throughout the 20th century. Thus, rather than a disease of hereditary degeneration or of structural brain pathology, Kraepelin believed dementia praecox was due to a systemic or “whole body” disease process, probably metabolic, which gradually affected many of the tissues and organs of the body before affecting the brain in a final, decisive cascade.
There was substantial opposition to the use of the term “dementia” as misleading, partly due to findings of remission and recovery. Together Kahlbaum and Hecker were the first to describe and name such syndromes as dysthymiacyclothymiaparanoiacatatoniaand hebephrenia.
Dementia praecox – Wikipedia
But it was not until and that the first three American publications regarding dementia praecox appeared, one of which was a translation of a few sections of Kraepelin’s 6th edition of on dementia praecox. The fourth edition of his textbook, Psychiatriepublished intwo years after his arrival at Heidelberg, contained some impressions of the patterns Kraepelin had begun to find in his index cards.
For research purposes, the definition of schizophrenia returned to the narrow range allowed by Kraepelin’s dementia praecox concept. The term “dementia praecox” was first used in by Arnold Pick —a professor of psychiatry at Charles University in Prague.
It is impossible to discern whether the condition briefly described by Morel was equivalent to the disorder later called dementia praecox by Pick and Kraepelin. German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin — popularised it pqraphrenia his first detailed textbook descriptions of a condition that eventually became a different disease concept and pwraphrenia as schizophrenia.
The primary disturbance in dementia praecox was seen to be a disruption in cognitive or mental functioning in attention, memory, and goal-directed behaviour. These terms, however, are still found in general psychiatric nomenclature.
Open Journal of PsychiatryVol.
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This division, commonly referred to as the Kraepelinian dichotomyhad a fundamental impact on twentieth-century psychiatry, though it has also been questioned. Kraepelin died while working on the ninth edition of Psychiatrie with Johannes Lange —who finished it and brought it to publication in Kraepelin viewed dementia praecox as a progressively deteriorating disease from which no one recovered.
Over the years, the term “dementia praecox” was gradually replaced by ” schizophrenia “, which remains in current diagnostic use.
Bleuler corresponded with Freud and was connected to Freud’s psychoanalytic movement,  and the inclusion of Freudian interpretations of the symptoms of schizophrenia in his publications on the subject, as well as those of C.
Moreover, it was now understood as an irreversible condition and a particular emphasis was placed on memory loss in regard to the deterioration of intellectual functions. Based on his theory that dementia praecox is the product of autointoxication emanating from the sex glands, Kraepelin experimented, without success, with injections of thyroid, gonad and other glandular extracts.
Some of the psychiatrists who worked to bring about this revision referred to themselves as the “neo-Kraepelinians”. Kraepelin had experimented with hypnosis but found it wanting, and disapproved of Freud’s and Jung’s introduction, based on no evidence, of psychogenic assumptions to the interpretation and treatment of mental illness. The objective of this research was to explore the symptoms of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and with bipolar mood disorder in order to determine the frequency of symptom overlap.
Kraepelin believed that by thoroughly describing all of the clinic’s new patients on index cards, which he had been using sinceresearcher bias could be eliminated from the investigation process. He did not conceptualise their state as irreversible and thus his use of the term dementia was equivalent to that formed in the eighteenth century as outlined above.
The dissemination of Kraepelin’s disease concept to the Anglophone world was facilitated in when Ross Diefendorf, a lecturer in psychiatry at Yale, published an adapted version of the sixth edition of the Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie. He eventually concluded that it was not possible to distinguish his categories on the basis of rpaecox symptoms. Without Kahlbaum and Hecker there would be no dementia praecox.
The term lived on due to its promotion in the publications of the National Committee on Mental Hygiene founded in and the Eugenics Records Office Kraepelin contrasted this with manic-depressive psychosis, now termed bipolar disorderand also with other forms of mood disorderincluding major depressive disorder.
But perhaps the most important reason for the longevity of Kraepelin’s term paraphdenia its inclusion in as an official diagnostic category in the uniform system adopted for comparative statistical record-keeping in all American mental institutions, The Statistical Manual for the Parahprenia of Institutions for the Insane.
An additional feature of the clinical method was that the characteristic symptoms that define syndromes should be described without any prior assumption of brain pathology although such links would be made later as scientific knowledge progressed. In this edition dementia praecox is still essentially hebephrenia, and it, dementia paranoides and catatonia are described as distinct psychotic disorders among the “metabolic disorders leading to dementia”.
Views Read Edit View history. What convinced me of demfntia superiority of the clinical method of diagnosis followed here over the traditional one, was the certainty with which we could predict in conjunction with our new concept of disease the future course of events. After a while, the notes were taken out of the box, the diagnoses were listed, and the case was closed, the final interpretation of paraphrdnia disease was added to the original diagnosis. Retrieved 26 September Retrieved from ” https: In the znd edition of PsychiatrieKraepelin established a paradigm for psychiatry that would dominate the prqecox century, sorting most of the recognized forms of insanity into two major categories: In Bleuler’s schizophrenia rose in prominence as an alternative to Kraepelin’s dementia praecox.
Schizophrenia seemed to be more prevalent and more psychogenic and more treatable than either Kraepelin or Bleuler would have allowed. Dowbiggin inaccurately states that Morel used demenita term on page of the first volume of his publication Etudes cliniques Dowbigginp.