Rio de Janeiro: ABNT (NBR ) (In Portuguese) 7. Brazilian Association of extract from solid residues. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT (NBR ). Brazilian Association of Technical Norms, in ABNT NBR Procedure for obtention leaching extract of solid wastes (Rio de Janeiro, ), p. 16 8. ABNT NBR , Solid Waste: Classification, Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ABNT NBR , Leaching of.
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Moreover, six optimum thermal lead removal procedures were performed and the NBR procedure was repeated. The lead concentration in the leached solution demonstrates that CRT monitors are a hazardous waste to the environment and are classified as Class I – Dangerous Waste according to NBR Ceramic materials are among those most traditionally used in the construction sector.
Characteristics of fired bricks with co—combustion fly ashes. The chosen glass component for this procedure was the funnel glass because it presented high lead concentration. Currently produced ceramic coatings are generally composed of three distinct layers: The conformation was formulated using a laboratory press with a capacity of 15 tons.
NBR A 5. Seven CRTs monitors were submitted to the Brazilian standard leaching procedure to evaluate their hazard potential. Iron oxide is known to favor reddish tones in the burned parts and by the fluxing effect in the ceramics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Avnt. Waste of electric and electronic equipment WEEE includes not only the equipment itself, but also all the components, subassemblies and consumables which are part of the product at the time of discarding European Union, abnf WEEE contains a significant number of precious metals, many of which are being recovered through different studies: Is very important in generating income in the Brazilian industrial sector.
The results of mechanical strength obtained by the diametrical compression method abht the water absorption presented in the graph Figure 4. The duly identified formulations were packed in hermetically sealed plastic containers for moisture homogenization for a period longer than 24 h.
The technological properties evaluated were linear thermal retraction of drying and firing, loss on fire, water absorption and mechanical resistance. The monitors were weighed and their parts were separated and sorted into four categories: The ideal moisture for making these specimens is determined by the Pfefferkorn plasticity assay.
A capacidade que este mineral apresenta para adsorver metais pesados tem despertado interesse de alguns autores. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Actav. These tailings have the potential to be used abbt an alternative raw material in the manufacture of heavy clay ceramics and therefore, from a manufacturing point of view, can be used as a great flux that still generates improvements in the characterization of the final product and gains in sustainable marketing.
Abstract Cathode ray tube CRT monitors are electronic equipment mainly made of glass, polymers and metals.
Lead hazard evaluation for cathode ray tube monitors in Brazil
The CRT used in television and computer screens represents one of the main sources of e-waste as flat screens have replaced them over the last ten years Lecler et al. This factor causes the number of researches to increase the incorporation of a series of residues in ceramic mass, such as glass, 1415 ashes of the most diverse sources, 16 mining wastes, 19 sludge from a wide variety of treatment sources, 20 waste from heavy clay ceramic process 23 and other wastes. Therefore, it is possible to analyze the difference in the linear retraction of burning of the formulations.
Adapted from ABNT b. The annual global of ceramic for masonry production is currently around billion and its demand is expected to grow steadily. Energy—efficient buildings PPP, multi—annual road map and longer term strategy.
Natural clay substitution by calamine processing wastes to manufacture fired bricks. Study for vitreous waste recovery in the formulation of heavy clay ceramics. Over time, the planet’s natural resources, formerly considered abundant, have been used indiscriminately generating significant amounts of solid waste.
The manufacture of red ceramics is able to absorb high amounts of solid residues from several segments, mainly due to the large volumes involved, allows greater tolerance in the composition of its mass.
The use of ceramic sludge and recycled glass to obtain engobes for manufacturing ceramic tiles. Pollution causes, effects and control. Where it was possible to decrease the water absorption and increase the mechanical strength.
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The other two components usually contain lead in their composition; the total amount of lead in a CRT may reach 3 kg Lecler et al.
The panel component is the heaviest part and it contains elements such as barium, strontium, and yttrium. Best results were observed in sample F that was processed with the following parameters: Chemical and mineralogical characterization tests of the raw materials carried out.
Improper WEEE handling and recycling may lead to health problems as these equipment contain harmful substances such as toxic metals and flame retardants Ant et al. The NBR displays a list of known hazardous materials and their characteristics and can be related to the Code of Federal Regulations title 40, subtitle of the United States 40 C. Completion of carbonate species at the goethite surface: With this waste it can possible of introducing faster firing cycles.
The procedures presented the NBR simulate the leaching that may occur to a non-sheltered waste; a flowchart of the norm is presented in Fig. This content is the standard 10050 the accomplishment of the conformation of the specimens. August 24, Correspondence: Reducing the amount of pores favoring the reduction of water absorption sbnt the increases of the mechanical resistance.
For this procedure the weighings of the Standard Mass STD and also of the waste were carried out with a balance electronic mark, model SF with a maximum capacity of 10 kg.