Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a of heterogeneous acid catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD The grant supports Rohm and Haas’s development of a newly commercial polymeric catalyst technology, AMBERLYSTâ„¢ BD20 specialty. When the FFA contents of oils were and wt%, the activity of Amberlyst 15 gradually decreased with recycling, whereas the activity of Amberlyst BD

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In one embodiment the FFA content of the reaction mixture is maintained at a sufficiently low level amberlyts enter a catalytic transesterification or hydrotreating process without requiring an intermediate FFA removal step.

The reactor should be sized to provide sufficient residence time for the carboxylic acid contained in the feedstock 1 to be converted sufficiently to esters.

The method of claim 13wherein the reactor is xmberlyst continuous flow reactor. However, amberlysg are unresolved concerns about catalyst fouling, durability, stability, activity, and replacement schedule with continuous use of commercial-grade higher FFA feedstocks. In one embodiment the oil phase is sufficiently dry, free of water, alcohol and homogenous catalyst before entering a transesterification process or a crude biodiesel purification process.

The drawings are not to scale and represent exemplary configurations that depict general principles of the technology which smberlyst not meant to limit the scope of the invention. After a prescribed residence time a first reaction mixture 3 exits the first reactor containing lower quantities of carboxylic acid than the feedstock 1.

In one embodiment, the feedstock containing carboxylic acid 1 is pretreated to remove impurities and dried amherlyst remove moisture before entering the reactor The method of claim 1further comprising the step of separating a majority of the alcohol and water from the reaction mixture to obtain a dry reaction mixture.

Method of preparing fatty acid alkyl esters from waste or recycled fatty acid stock.


In one embodiment the regenerating acid flow in the opposite direction countercurrent of the service flow, noting the service flow may be upwards or downwards through the reactor. Esterification reactions can be performed in either batch or continuous process applications. However, other homogenous catalysts may be used including sulfuric or phosphoric acid. In one embodiment the pressure is maintained between 0 and psig. In one embodiment the second reaction mixture 5 is washed with water before entering a decanter The reactor may be fitted with provisions to add and remove heterogeneous catalyst, including by means of motive fluid flow.

Without limiting the scope of the invention, it is theorized that some esterification xmberlyst, particularly ion exchange resin catalysts tend to foul or become deactivated due to metal ions, proteins, phospholipids, chemical compounds i.

Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a heterogeneous catalyst.

In yet another embodiment, the amount of homogenous catalyst introduced to a reactor is between 0. In one embodiment it may be beneficial to minimize the amount of homogenous catalyst in stream Since esterification reactions are reversible, the reaction does not go to completion.

Another common method to remove small amounts of FFA is by adding a base reactant such as sodium hydroxide in order to saponify the Aamberlyst to soap which allows removal by water washing and filtration.

It may be desirable to operate unit to minimize the amount of homogenous catalyst in stream 8 thereby maximizing the amount of the homogenous catalyst in stream 9.

Year of fee payment: Free fatty acids in raw materials can also be esterified with alcohols using heterogeneous catalysis i. Additionally, prior to any reaction vessels described in this invention, in one embodiment the pretreated feedstock is passed through a bed of ion exchange resin for the purpose of removing impurities amberlysh may deactivate our foul the heterogeneous catalyst. In ambelyst embodiment it may be preferable to minimize the amount of moisture in stream 7.


In one embodiment the carboxylic acids contained in the feedstock are free fatty acids. Such contaminants ambeelyst be introduced by the feedstock, corrosion, and other impurities or mechanism within the process. In one embodiment, the operating conditions in units and are substantially similar to those described previously for unit The method of claim 1wherein said reactor is a fixed bed reactor. The flowrates provide a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.

Purification of glycerin obtained as a bioproduct from the transesterification of triglycerides in the synthesis of biofuel. The calculated molar ratio of methanol to free fatty acid was 9. amebrlyst

Pennsylvania paves way for biodiesel growth

The calculated molar ratio of methanol to free fatty acids was 9. After a prescribed residence time a second reaction mixture 10 exits the second reactor containing lower quantities of carboxylic acid than the feedstock 1 and first reaction mixture 3. In another embodiment, a portion of alcohol, water and homogenous catalyst 8 are removed from the first reaction mixture 3 contained in unit by decantation or centrifugation, leaving a principally dry reaction mixture 9.

Another method of the invention, with reference to FIG.

In another amberlyet method is repeated in series with method The operating conditions and provisions of the first reactor are as previously described. Methods, processes, apparatus, equipment and systems are disclosed for converting carboxylic acids into esters by esterification with alcohol and a dual catalyst.

In one embodiment, alcohol and water and other volatiles 11 are removed from the second reaction mixture 10 contained in unit by distillation leaving a dry reaction mixture 12 and a portion of homogenous catalyst. The reactor may be oriented either horizontally or vertically. The method of claim 1wherein said carboxylic acid content of the feedstock is between 0.

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